domingo, 2 de janeiro de 2011

The Sioux Nation

The Sioux Nation ( a little bit of history )

The Sioux Nation is really made up of different groups with varying histories and customs. In studying the Sioux, the first challenge is to learn the various names and locations of the the different bands ( tribes ). Siouan was a widesperad indian language family and tribes in many parts of north american spoke Siouan dialects. The tribal name Sioux is applied only to a specific division of siouan-speaking people, however. The name is derived from the french version of a chippewa (ojibway) word in the algonquian language. The chippewa tribe used to call their enemies nadouessioux for "adders," a kind of snake.

The Sioux also are known collectively as the dakota, from which has come the names of two U.S states, North and South Dakota. In the siouan language, dakota (or lakota or nakota) means "allies." There were four ancestral branches of Sioux, with different bands in each.

Also The tribes division indicate the original Seven Council Fires or Oceti Sakowin, also known as the Great Sioux Nation.

The largest branch was the Teton (or Titonwan) - prairie village - , with the following bands: Known as Lakota Tribes – mainly located in south and north Dakota.

The Lakota
1 Oglala
2 Brule (Sicangu )
3 Hunkpapa –
4 Miniconjou
5 Oohenopa ( two kettle)
6 Itazipco ( Sans Arcs)
7 Sihasapa ( black foot )

A second branch was the Santee, ( dakota dialect ) with the following bands:
1 Sisseton
2 Wahpeton
3 Wahpekute
4 Mdewakanton
( the term Santee used historically more accurately applies to just the Wahpekute and the Mdewakanton groups, not Sisston and Wahpeton as well. In any case, all four areconsidered distinct dialect groups.)

A third branch was the Yankton ( or Ihanktonwan), with only one band, the Yankton. ( Nakota dialect )

A Fourth branch was the Yanktonai ( or Ihanktonwanna), with the following bands
1 Yanktonai
2 Hunkpatina
3 Assiniboine The Assiniboine separated from their relatives andare discussed under their own entry.

The Teton use the Lakota version of the tribal name; the Santee say Dakota; and the Yakton and Yanktonai use Nakota.

The Sioux were proud of their rich heritage. They were the masters of the North American plains and prairies, feared by other tribes from the great lakes to the Rockies.
Migrating west from Minnesota, the Sioux became nomads of the plains, taking advantage of horses which were originally brought to the Americas by the Spanish in the 1500s. Following the buffalo ( tatanka ), they lived in teepees to allow them quick mobility.

Though the Sioux were known as great warriors, the family was considered the center of Sioux life. Children were called "Wakanisha” which meant sacred and were the center of attention. While monogamy was most often practiced, Indian  men were allowed to take on more than one wife. However, infidelity was punished by disfigurement.

The roles of men and women were clearly defined with the men expected to provide for and defend the family. Hunting was taken very seriously and infraction of the hunting rules could lead to destruction of a man’s teepee or other property. Women were the matriarchs, ruling the family and domestic lives of the band.

The Sioux were a deeply spiritual people, believing in one all-pervasive god, Wakan Tanka, or the Great Mystery. Religious visions were cultivated and the people communed with the spirit world through music and dance..

Difficult to understand??...the same for me has been taking months for me to understand this...the more I researched the more I got we know the Sioux Nation is very large ( is ..)divided in different branches with different  bands or tribes....

The modern political divisions are as follows:Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe
Teton Lakota (Sihasapa, Mnicoujou, Itazipco, and Oohenumpa)
Primary location: Cheyenne River Indian Reservation, north-central South Dakota

Oglala Sioux Tribe
Teton Lakota (Oglala)
Primary location: Pine Ridge Reservation, south-western South Dakota

Rosebud Sioux Tribe
Teton Lakota (Sicangu)
Primary location: Rosebud Indian Reservation, south-central South Dakota

Lower Brulé Sioux Tribe
Teton Lakota (Sicangu)
Primary location: Lower Brulé Indian Reservation, central South Dakota

Yankton Sioux Tribe
Yankton Nakota (Yankton)
Primary location: Yankton Sioux Indian Reservation, south-eastern South Dakota

Crow Creek Sioux Tribe
Santee Dakota (Mdewakanton)
Yankton Nakota (Yankton)
Primariy location: Crow Creek Indian Reservation, central South Dakota

Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe
Santee Dakota (Sisseton, Wahpeton)
Primary location: Sisseton-Wahpeton Indian Reservation, north-eastern South Dakota

Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe
Santee Dakota (Mdewakanton, Wahpekute)
Primary location: Flandreau Santee Sioux Reservation, eastern South Dakota

Standing Rock Sioux Tribe
Teton Lakota (Hunkpapa, Sihasapa)
Yankton Dakota (Yanktonai)
Primary location: Standing Rock Indian Reservation, south-central North Dakota/north-central South Dakota

Spirit Lake Sioux Tribe
Santee Dakota (Sisseton, Wahpeton)
Primary location: Spirit Lake Tribe Indian Reservation, east-central North Dakota

Santee Sioux Tribe of Nebraska
Santee Dakota
Primary location: Santee Dakota Indian Reservation, north-eastern Nebraska

Upper Sioux Tribe
Santee Dakota
Primary location: Granite Falls, Minnesota

Lower Sioux Community
Santee Dakota (Mdewakanton)
Primary location: Morton, Minnesota

Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community
Santee Dakota (Mdewakanton)
Primary location: Prior Lake, Minnesota

Prairie Island Sioux Community
Santee Dakota (Mdewakanton)
Primary location: Welsh, Prairie Island, Minnesota

Mendota Mdewakanton Dakota Community
Santee Dakota (Mdewakanton)
Primary location: Mendota, Minnesota

Fort Peck Tribes
Assiniboine and Sioux (Yanktonai, Mdewakanton, Wahpekute, Sisseton, Wahpeton)
Primary location: Fort Peck Indian Reservation, North-East Montana
More information about the Sioux Nation can be found in different websites, book and movies or thru the Tribes websites, all the references mentioned here in this blog.

 It´s important to know the history to understand the present, and at the present the nation is no longer fighting for resistance, but for preservation!! ( more information is yet to come )

Um comentário:

  1. Books by Joseph Marshall is an excellent source, you might like these.

    My family has a house in the Black Hills, but my cousin (who is Oglala) grew up in Pine Ridge. I spent two weeks there last summer. Whenever you are ready to travel there, let me know and I can tell you the good spots to eat and stay. I loved the Badlands, I have photos on my blog.